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Vita e Pensiero

Dallas, Italia. Cronaca di un successo (non troppo) annunciato - “Dallas”, Italy. Report of a (not too much) announced success digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 1. Moving at different speeds. The commercialization of television systems in Europe and its consequences
Year: 2013
SUMMARY TV series Dallas is a perfect example to properly understand the rise of private commercial networks in Italy. While, during the decades of Rai monopoly, the TV schedule was mostly steady and static and US TV series were considered a minor genre, with commercial TV the situation changed. Dallas was underrated, unappreciated and then discarded after a couple of broadcasts by the public service broadcaster Rai. Therefore, newborn Canale 5 channel seized the opportunity and made it successful, both scooping the competition of other networks and defeating the public service. The essay intends to analyse the scheduling for Dallas in Italy during the first years of its broadcasting (1981-1984), showing its ups and downs, and describing the peculiar way the private network capitalised on its paratexts. The aim of the paper is to retrace the innovation that Dallas brought into the Italian television industry, with the implementation of modern strategies of TV scheduling such as counter programming and stacking. RIASSUNTO La serie televisiva Dallas è un caso emblematico per capire al meglio lo sviluppo dei network commerciali privati in Italia. Mentre, durante i decenni di monopolio Rai, il palinsesto televisivo era principalmente statico e immutabile e i telefilm americani venivano considerati un genere minore, con la tv commerciale la situazione è mutata. Dallas è stato sottovalutato, incompreso e poi scartato dopo poche messe in onda dal servizio pubblico della Rai. Una Canale 5 appena nata sfruttò l’opportunità e lo rese un titolo di grande successo, usandolo sia per sconfiggere la concorrenza di altri network privati sia per battere il servizio pubblico. Il saggio analizza la programmazione di Dallas in Italia nei primi cinque anni della sua messa in onda (1981-1985), ripercorrendone successi e fallimenti, e descrivendo il particolare modo in cui il network privato riuscì a sfruttare anche i suoi paratesti. Scopo del saggio è rintracciare gli elementi di innovazione portati da Dallas nell’industria tv italiana, con lo sviluppo di moderne strategie di costruzione del palinsesto come la contro-programmazione e il trascinamento orizzontale.
€ 6.00
The commercialization process of Romanian post-communist television. The movement for an independent television and its consequences digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 1. Moving at different speeds. The commercialization of television systems in Europe and its consequences
Year: 2013
SUMMARY Media market analysts and researchers consider that private initiative in the Romanian television industry took form after 1992, when the new Audio-Visual Law allowed private agencies to apply for licenses from the Ministry of Communication. And even more, they consider that the real phase of commercial television begin after 1994/5, after PRO TV channel started broadcasting. However, commercialization must be regarded as a process that’s why it’s very important to get to know the premise and the context in which took place the entrance of private actors into the Romanian TV national market. In this respect, the establishment and the activity of the Society for the Organization of an Independent Television (SOTI), including the emergence of SOTI TV in December 1991, was a time reference for the development of post-communist commercial media in Romania. The main objective of this study is to analyze the context and consequences of this experience: SOTI was the civic initiative that forced indirectly the Romanian Government to give up the state monopoly and to give legal existence to commercial broadcasters. RIASSUNTO Analisti mediali e ricercatori ritengono che l’iniziativa privata nella televisione rumena prese forma a partire dal 1992, quando la nuova legge sull’audiovisivo rese possibile ad agenzie private di richiedere le licenze al Ministero delle Comunicazioni. Ancora di più, considerano che la fase reale di tv commerciale ebbe inizio dopo il 1994-95, quando il canale PRO TV iniziò le sue trasmissioni. La commercializzazione va intesa come un processo, ed è molto importante conoscere le premesse e il contesto in cui si svolse l’entrata di attori privati nella tv romena. Da questo punto di vista, l’attività della Society for the Organization of an Independent Television (SOTI), compresa la nascita nel dicembre 1991 di SOTI TV, è un momento importante per lo sviluppo di media commerciali post-comunisti in Romania. L’obiettivo primario di questo lavoro è l’analisi del contesto e delle conseguenze di questa esperienza: SOTI è stata l’iniziativa civica che ha indirettamente forzato il Governo rumeno ad abbandonare il monopolio di Stato e rendere legali i broadcaster commerciali.
€ 6.00
The commercialization of television in Switzerland. A matter of neighbours digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 1. Moving at different speeds. The commercialization of television systems in Europe and its consequences
Year: 2013
SUMMARY Over time, commercial television has become widespread throughout Europe with implications on the market’s features and structure, and on audiences. Switzerland is a peculiar case, where the national television landscape has not undergone a process of commercialization even though there are several commercial players operating in the market (mainly originally from neighbouring countries). In order to deepen an understanding of the role of Swiss commercial broadcasters and the reasons for their marginality, this paper will present the Swiss television market and discuss Swiss media policy and regulation. It will also highlight the consequences of “non-commercialization” and the implications for other television operators in Switzerland, in particular for the public service broadcaster. RIASSUNTO Nel tempo, la televisione commerciale si è diffusa in tutta Europa, con implicazioni sia sulle caratteristiche e sulla struttura del mercato, sia sugli spettatori. La Svizzera è un caso particolare, in cui il paesaggio televisivo nazionale non è passato attraverso un processo di commercializzazione, anche se sono presenti numerosi operatori commerciali che operano nel mercato (in prevalenza, originari di Paesi confinanti). Per approfondire la comprensione del ruolo dei broadcaster commerciali svizzeri e discutere le ragioni di questa marginalità, il saggio presenta il mercato televisivo svizzero e discute le politiche mediali e la regolamentazione del paese. Il lavoro sottolinea inoltre le conseguenze della mancata commercializzazione e le implicazioni per gli altri operatori televisivi svizzeri, e in particolare per il servizio pubblico televisivo.
€ 6.00
Il mercato delle location cinematografiche. Un modello interpretativo - The film location market. An interpretative model digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 1. Moving at different speeds. The commercialization of television systems in Europe and its consequences
Year: 2013
RIASSUNTO Negli ultimi due decenni un numero crescente di amministrazioni locali ha iniziato a considerare il cinema come un settore produttivo “utile” in grado di fungere da volano di sviluppo economico. Ciò ha portato molte di esse a investire denaro in una serie di politiche film-friendly (film commission, film fund, incentivi fiscali, studi di registrazione) con l’obiettivo di attrarre sempre più riprese sui propri territori e, quindi, di incrementare la produttività locale, dirottare localmente nuovi capitali finanziari, creare occupazione e promuovere i propri paesaggi. Politiche che al contempo consentono alle imprese cinematografiche di risparmiare denaro, usufruire gratuitamente di preziosi servizi, e di sfruttare insolite location per intercettare l’interesse di un più ampio (o specifico) pubblico. Alla luce di queste considerazioni, in prima istanza l’articolo analizza come le imprese cinematografiche e le amministrazioni locali stiano stringendo un’alleanza sempre più solida basata sullo sfruttamento di location cinematografiche. In secondo luogo il testo propone un modello attraverso il quale interpretare il mercato delle location cinematografiche che si sta venendo a creare e che coinvolge sempre più di frequente anche il pubblico. summary In the last two decades more and more local public administrations realized that cinema could be a “useful” productive sector for the economic development of their regions. Since then they started to invest money in film-friendly policies (film commissions, film funds, tax incentives, studio facilities) with the aim of attracting film shoots and, therefore, increasing the local productivity, attracting financial capitals, creating new employment and promoting their landscapes. These policies allow film companies to save money, to count on helpful free services, and to exploit unusual locations for reaching a wider or specific audience. Starting by these considerations, the paper investigates how film companies and public administrations are forming a tight alliance based on the exploitation of film locations. Finally, it proposes an interpretative model for the film location market, that involves the audience as well.
€ 6.00
Il fine sottratto. Sull’‘‘ontologia drammatica’’ di H.U. von Balthasar - The “Dramatic ontology” of H.U. von Balthasar digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 1. Moving at different speeds. The commercialization of television systems in Europe and its consequences
Year: 2013
RIASSUNTO Il saggio svolge un’analisi della categoria di dramma in von Balthasar, soffermandosi sulla struttura drammatica della sua ermeneutica; la ricerca verte pertanto sui concetti di libertà finita e infinita, definendone l’architettura concettuale, la cui origine risale al dibattito cattolico sulla relazione tra natura e grazia. I paradigmi teorici sono la teologia cattolica e la concezione ontologica dinamica di Balthasar. Si afferma così che l’origine della concettualità drammatica dell’autore sia da ravvisare nella dottrina del rapporto tra natura e grazia, elaborata nella monografia dedicata a Karl Barth, ricostruendo la logica di Teodrammatica fino al confronto con il teologo evangelico. La dottrina dell’incontro delle libertà, che ha come fondamento la relazione tra natura e grazia, risveglia nel dibattito teologico contemporaneo il nocciolo intimamente drammatico del cristianesimo. Il saggio non ricostruisce la concettualità drammatica balthasariana a partire dall’antropologia filosofica o teologica, come per lo più avviene, ma esaminandone il radicamento in una cruciale questione teologica, e ha modo di illuminare il rapporto tra Chiesa e teatro non attraverso la ricostruzione storiografica, bensì dal punto di vista della struttura formale, ontologica. SUMMARY The essay analyzes the category of drama in von Balthasar, in particular the dramatic structure of his hermeneutic; it studies the concepts of finite and infinite freedom, defining their conceptual architecture, which depends on the catholic debate about grace and nature. The paradigms are the catholic doctrine and the dynamic ontology of Balthasar. The origin of his dramatic categories, reconstructing the logic of Theo-Drama, is the doctrine of the relationship between nature and grace, elaborated in the monograph about Karl Barth. The doctrine of the encounter of freedoms, based on the relationship between nature and grace, awakens in the contemporary theological debate the dramatic core of Revelation. The essay does not reconstruct the dramatic conceptuality through philosophical or theological anthropology, but through a crucial theological question; it lights the relationship between Church and theatre following a formal, ontological point of view, avoiding the historiographical reconstruction.
€ 6.00
COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media digital
format: Digital issue
Year: 2013
Numero due del 2013 della rivista "Comunicazioni Sociali"
Raccordare mondi possibili. Transmedialità, videogioco e problemi di canone - Linking possible universes. Transmediality, videogame and the canon issues digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
The notion of “canon” within transmedial universes has a problematic nature, which is reflected in the literature about fandom. The imprecision is due in no small part to the lack of a model regarding its workings and nature. To this end, we propose a model based on the spatialization of the structure of transmedia universes in term of centre/periphery relationship, and discuss the canon as one of the modalities to arrange this relationship. The paper illustrates the concept with some examples in universes which feature video-ludic elements at their centers. The analysis allows the emergence of key differences between universes with “ludic” centres with respect to universes with other kinds of centres: namely, that universes with games at their centres feature less stabilized models of canonization and feature peculiar canonizations such as “non-narrative canonization” which is largely based upon the affordances of video-ludic texts.
€ 6.00
Sguardi paralleli. Videogiochi e società della Sorveglianza - Parallel looks. Videogames and “Surveillance society” digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
The “Surveillance society” is a popular concept that, from classic surveillance studies, moves towards a broader media studies context. The reason of this diffusion lies in the growing spreading of surveillance services and tools in new fields, and in the recurring representation of its dynamics among new media. In this work we will demonstrate how some visual qualities of the videogame experience, coming from both gameplay and framing choices, precisely replicateproper dynamics of the “Surveillance society”. “Shooter” and “Strategic” game genres will be observed, recognizing two different kinds of relation with the diffused contemporary “controller sight”.
€ 6.00
Sound and vision. L’immagine, lo sguardo e lo spazio - Sound and vision. The image, look and space digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
This intervention aims at dealing with the analysis of some case studies, reconstructing the critical debate and starting from how digital landscapes are used, with modalities that you can confront with those of the nineteenth-century flâneur who wandered aimlessly through the city just to experience it. The translations of landscapes and contemporary urban imaginaries acquire aesthetic and design-related values to the extent that in some cases they represent another experience for the player, as interactive possibilities not strictly related to the main gameplay. A reconstruction of the models and of their cultural meanings is particularly important, restarting from studies such as the Century City exhibition held at the Tate Modern in London, who investigated the particular importance of some cities in a given period and connected to a specific cultural scene. Thanks to a project-related culture dedicated to the digital city, it has been possible to follow the spread of a phenomenon, the diffusion of different sorts of tourism in videogames, interpreted from time to time as a “prize” for the gamer, a diversion or a parallel activity, often user-generated, compared to the main action of the game, or characterized as interstices in the main action and narration, until recent cases in which the act of looking and documenting coincide with the game itself.
€ 6.00
Sound and vision. Progettare e giocare la città videoludica: modelli e culture - Sound and vision. Planning and playing the video-ludic city: models and cultures digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
The article aims at analyzing the representations of the city and the urban space that are proposed in videogames. To this end, we identified four different “models and specific ideologies” of cities that can be found in a videogame: “city as a mirror of modernity”, “literary city”, “myth-city” and “film city” verifying how videogames do not simply tend to produce more detailed cities, but adapt the design according to two orders of choices: the gameplay and a background ideology and culture.
€ 6.00
Art Games. The Videogame as a Legitimate Art Medium digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
Along the last years, the debate around videogames as art got momentum. Unsurprisingly, this debate included many misunderstandings and cross wires, usually related to the meaning and the cultural dignity (or lack thereof) one applies to the key words of this discussion: “art”, “game”, and “videogame”. Most of these misunderstandings are not new, but resurfaced any time Western culture had to face the problem of accepting the artistic nature of a given new medium, from photography to cinema and video. After briefly considering the legitimization dynamics of these media, the author discusses the definition – now widely accepted – of “art games”, suggesting a distinction between videogames as an autonomous artistic medium and “art world”, and the use of videogame as a medium in the field of contemporary art.
€ 6.00
Il machinima come arte visionaria: Jon Rafman - The “Machinima” as visionary art: John Rafman digital
format: Article | COMUNICAZIONI SOCIALI - 2013 - 2. Play the aesthetics. Video game between art and media
Year: 2013
This essay examines Codes of Honor ‒ a narrative-based machinima on arcade culture produced by Jon Rafman (b. 1981) in 2011 ‒ through the lenses of Vilém Flusser (1920-1991) and William Gibson (b. 1948). Specifically, Bittanti suggests that the Canadian artist exemplifies what media philosopher Flusser called “envisioneer”, “non-spectacular revolutionary”, and homo ludens in Into the Universe of Technical Images, published in 1985. According to Flusser, in the emergent telematic society, a new generation of artists ‒ envisioneers ‒ will create novel images in unexpected ways through playful, global dialogue. Likewise, in his 1984 novel Neuromancer, Gibson described a new kind of subject that manipulates images in a rhizome-like electronic universe, subsequently revealing that the inspiration came from watching arcade gamers. The essay investigates the surprising affinities between narrative and theory, videogames and Game Art. In this context, Code of Honor is discussed a paradigmatic text in which these threads create a meta-dialogue.
€ 6.00

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