Lo spazio dei giardini nel Settecento come spazio teatrale. L’esempio del Nymphenburg a Monaco di Baviera
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Nymphenburg castle was born as an Italian style villa, namely a summer residence, after the wish of Princess Adelaide of Savoy, mother of Maximilian II Emanuel, and it was built by Italian Architects (Antonio Barelli, Enrico Zuccalli and Antonio Viscardi). Starting from 1715, when Prince Maximilian II Emanuel came back to Munich from his exile in France, the park next to the castle was enriched with plastic decorations, with the building of three original castles (Pagodenburg, Badenburg, Amalienburg) and with the Magdalenenklause. For this reason the garden architect Dominique Girard, disciple of Le Nôtre was called from Paris. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the baroque genesis of Nymphenburg gardens and to explain the theatrical elements in line with the complex court ceremonial of Maximilian II Emanuel, the founder and true director of the garden decoration. We will see how the Nymphenburg gardens, expression and concrete realization of the XVII century ‘Bequemlichkeit’, propose a life pattern essentially intended as comfortable living (large spaces and gardens) and as contact with nature mediate by fantasy (architecture and botanic). In order to understand the planning criterions on which is based the creation of the theatrical scenery of Nymphenburg gardens, we will look into the ideology of its inspirer. Prince Maximilian II Emanuel pursued ambitious political objectives, and he needed to publicly show his expectations of power and glory. These expectations were expressed through a hyperactivity in the building of castles and suburban villas such as Schleissheim and Nymphenburg and through the design and preparation of magnificent gardens, in line with the theatrical and representative rococo spirit. One of the greatest landscapists of the XVIIIth century, Venetian Bernardo Bellotto, during his continuous roving among European courts, dedicated a wonderful view to Nymphenburg castle, which shows well the theatrical use of garden space, where natural elements are artfully arranged for the pleasure of our sight and for the comfort (‘Bequemlichkeit’) of the court’s life.
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